For All The Trappers

Arising from the American city of Atlanta in the 90s, Trap is a unique, hip-hop-inspired electronic genre characterized by its apparent use of TR-808 samples, fat and booming bass, rhythm-shifting percussion, cinematic horns and raw synths.

Although trap beats were first produced as instrumental backdrops to follow the violence-fuelled lyrics of Southern US rappers, the genre has since filled all walks of electro music – from the post-dubstep sounds of EDM through to modern R&B and pop productions.

With these tips, we’ll break down the ultimate production and composition methods required to create genuine trap – from the giant TR-808 kick and intricate rhythm programming through to synth pattern, vocal production and arrangement.

#1. Building a Custom 808

Whereas a large chunk of electronic music styles feature clearly separate kick and bass sounds, trap beatmakers blend these elements into one monster low-frequency part – collectively referred to as the ‘808’ – thanks to the genre’s famous use of the classic kick sound from Roland’s TR-808 drum machine – that acts as both a rhythmic beater and powerful subsonic tail.

You’d be extremely lucky to stumble across one single sample that fulfills both of these mix roles, so layer various samples to achieve the wanted effect. Generally speaking, you’ll want a treble ‘click’ sound for the initial transient; a short, punchy ‘knock’ layer to provide the initial hit; and a synthesized 808-style tail for tone, weight, and bass energy.

#2. 808 Kick Harmonics

A clean 808-style kick has a strong primary frequency, but it’ll likely need the upper harmonics required to cut through on smaller speakers.

To give your 808 kicks extra harmonic power, load saturation and distortion plugins on a return track, then send the kick’s tail to it in tandem to the original. Filter away the sub frequencies on the distorted return, then mix in the parallel distortion signal to taste, blending in new harmonics over the clean sub tail.

#3. Rhythmic Hi-Hat Rolls with an Arpeggiator

A TR-808 closed hi-hat moving in speed is a trap trademark. Here’s how to achieve the effect in a flash using an arpeggiator.

Step 1: While you can always program maze-like percussion changes by drawing in MIDI notes, there’s a far more comfortable way to do it. Begin by loading a TR-808 closed hi-hat sample into a sampler. Program a single long MIDI note on the channel.

Step 2: Pipe a MIDI arpeggiator into the sampler channel, then set the arp up to repeat the MIDI note at steady rhythmic intervals, creating a constant stream of closed hats. Set the arpeggiator’s speed/rate to a straight value such as quarter-notes or eighth notes.

Step 3: Now automate the arpeggiator’s Rate control to change the hi-hat pattern’s speed at key points in the groove. A common trick is to keep the main speed at 1/4 or 1/8, then quickly shift to triplets or dotted notes at the end of every bar or so, displacing the groove to create buzzes, rolls and fills.

#4. Snare and Clap Rhythms

Following dubstep’s template, most trap records are produced at around 140-160bpm but feel far slower due to the kick and snare being programmed at half that tempo. Trap rhythms often feature dissimilar, syncopated interaction between these two speeds, blending a half-time snare on each bar’s third beat (instead of the usual 2 and 4) while robotic claps and other TR-808 sounds are interspersed at the original tempo.

When it comes to snare selection, trap producers don’t stray too far from the common palette of TR-808 sounds – namely, the electronic 808 snare and machine-perfect clap. A powerful 808 snare sample is placed on beat 3 of every bar. A bright clap is then layered over the snare, adding subtle treble presence, and a thicker TR-808 clap sample is placed on beats 2 and 4 of the bar, highlighting the ‘true’ speed of the track against the half-tempo snare to create symbiotic polyrhythms that merge fast and slow.

Finally, with its distinctive noise-like tinniness, the omnipresent 808 crash cymbal marks the downbeat of each four-bar section.

#5. Pitching Snare Fills

Another trademark trap routine involves repeating and pitching the main 808 snare to create rolls.

Again, use an arpeggiator to quickly change note repeats and speed, or draw the notes directly into the piano roll by hand if you want more control. Utilise triplets and/or dotted notes for a staggering, syncopated effect; and automate your sampler’s Transpose parameter to pitch the hits up or down.

#6. Trap Vocal Elements

While EDM-influenced mainstream masterpieces feature full-blown appearances from pop artists such as Justin Bieber, the majority of underground trap records contain more arcane spoken phrases, chops, and cuts.

Start with a small vocal phrase, pitch it up/down a few semitones (via either formant-shifting or traditional pitch-shifting), then chop it into bits and rearrange the segments into rhythmic stutters and repeats.

#7. Slow, Gliding Leads

Bending synths and repeating zaps are a key part of the trap aesthetic. Let’s look at how to make an authentic trap lead.

Step 1: Start with a two-oscillator synth – most will do the job, but we’re using Dune. Blend dual sawtooth oscillators, then apply liberal amounts of unison Detune to thicken the raw tone. Use the synth’s Spread function to widen the unison voices.

Step 2: Set the synth to Mono mode, crank up the Glide time, then play overlapping notes at high and low octaves to create an inflated slide effect. Use a fast envelope to modulate both oscillators’ pitches, adding a sharp ‘zap’ effect to the start of each note.

Step 3: Apply a liberal amount of reverb to fill out the stereo field. Finally, use the track’s kick and snare to heavily sidechain compress the lead, causing it to pump and move around the mix. Ensure the compressor is placed after the reverb to emphasize the extreme ducking.

#8. Trap Edits and Turnarounds

Certain turns and edits are widely used in popular trap records. As the tonal 808 kick – arguably the centerpiece of a trap production – hits firmly on the root note of the track, the simple act of transposing a few kicks at the end of a phrase is guaranteed to have a huge impact.

Combine your kick transposing with some clever muting. By cutting out all of the drums at the start of an eight-bar section, immediately after the pitched kick edit, you should leave an unexpected gap before throwing the parts back in on the third beat.

#9. Sidechain Compression

Since trap tends to be one of the more sparse electronic genres, sidechain compression can really help individual elements breathe and pump around each other, creating a ‘bouncing’ interplay between the ingredients.

#10. Intense Build-ups into Laidback Drop

Let’s turn our trap sketch into a short arrangement, following a template typical of most trap tracks. The clap, pitching snare and zapping lead all play a marching quarter-note pattern that keeps doubling up, intensifying the build-up. A filtered chord, noise sweep, and reverse effect all swell towards the main drop section where the other parts make way for a vocal phrase before the drop slams in.

The main drop then pulls back the intensity, contrasting against the build-up’s mid-focused, fast-paced rolls by slamming in the main elements – including the heavy kick/bass – at the usual trap-like ‘half-step’ pace. To ensure the drop hits hard, automate a gain plugin to lift the drop sections by at least 2dB.

Hope you like this article and if you do then share it on your social with your fellow producers and beatmakers. If you have any questions or comments, please leave them below.